SMAA – A slightly more intelligent blurring of edges.
TAA/SMAA T2X – An even more intelligent blur that takes multiple frames into account to reduce aliasing further, particularly temporal aliasing.
MSAA – Oversampling of edges, not just a simple blur. Far more demanding than any of the above.
TXAA – Oversampling of edges combined with a temporal algorithm that takes multiple frames into account, as well as a wider tent resolve that reduces temporal aliasing while slightly softening the picture. Very cinematic look but often criticized for its softness.
SSAA – Oversampling the entire screen. Extremely taxing brute force methods that works very well if you have the power.
You can often use multi/super/oversampling in combination with one of the post process methods, which counteracts the detail loss from the blur.